Frequently Asked Questions

These are commonly asked questions and their answers.

Editorial Policies
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In Eigen's Political & Historical Quotations, the quotations are divided into several parts. 

 

  • At the top of each full quotation display is the Quotation Number (in grey type).
  • Then the name of the Author (Quotee) appears in Red.
  • The Quotation Text itself follows in black.
  • Next is the Citation, also in black, but in a smaller font.  The citation itself if divided into components.  All the components, taken together, make up the Citation.
    • The first component is the author's name--first name first.
    • For deceased authors, the dates of birth and death (Vital Statistics) appear to the right of the Name.
    • The next line or lines contain the Identifiers: major titles, positions held, and sometimes occupational information.  If the author is not American, then the author's country also appears in the Identifiers.
    • Then comes the Source of the quotation.  This usually is only one or two lines but occasionally it might be more.
    • On SOME quotations there is one more component to the Citation.  This is called the Context.  When there is Context for a quotation, there is an empty line after the Source and the CONTEXT starts on the following line.  All Contexts begin with a square bracket "[" and end with a closed square bracket "]".
    • Below the Source and the Context, if any, there is a dark brown rectangular box.  This box contains--in a Yellow font--the last three parts of the Quotation.  The first line in the box is the Area.  This is the general category in which the quotation content belongs.
    • Next appears the conceptual index term(s).  These may take up one or more lines depending on the quantity of concept terms that reference that quotation.
    • Last in the box are the Related Quotes--these are cross referenced Quotation Numbers that relate to the quotation being displayed
  • There is one final part of most quotations.  It is a graphic of the Author or in some cases the substance of the Quotation.  It appears next to the Quotation Text but on the left of the page.

 

 

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Generally no! This collection is not designed to capture contemporary quotations in real time or even in a short time.We do not simply take quotation texts and add them into the collection. Our Editorial Staff has to add the conceptual quotatations and that takes a little time,More important, is the fact that it is often very hard to get any perspective on a quotation proximate to the time in which it was originated. For example, Lincoln's Gettysberg Address was not considered very imporant at the time it was given, and it was overshadowed by several of the other speakers. In the refection of time and historical analysis, it contains some of Lincoln's best and most important quotations.If you want to search for very contemporary quotations, then a Google or Bing search of the News is the best way to do it. After a lttle time for consideration of our criteria, then it will appear in our collection.

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In the history of the last 2000 years, for almost 90 percent of that time religion and government were synonomous to a great extent.  Even today, Islamic nations other than Turkey, have government and religion totally intertwined.  So there has been profound influence on government and politics from religion. Some of this influence has been terrible and destructive; other, positive and helpful.  Either way, we have included many of the quotations that not only illustrate the inlfuence, but also explains the religious origin of and/or influence on many political concepts.

 

In addition, a huge proportion of the wars and conflicts of the last thousands of years have been in large part religious.  Quotes relating to these conflicts are also important.

 

Democracy, in particulalr, has had a very profound effect on religion.  In a sense, democratization diminished the power of churches and other religious groups.  At the same time, democracy has allowed religion to thrive.  The United States, the world's leading democracy, have produced MORE different new religions than any country in history--even those that have existed for many times the United States.  Think Mormons, Pentacostals, Shakers, Reform Judiasm, Christian Science, to name just a few.  The relaionship between democarcy and religion is represented with many quotations.

 

The conflict between organized religion and human rights has not only been extensive historically, but knowledge of that sad history had a profound influence on our Founding Fathers who created America to avoid the abuses of the past.

 

The last reason that there are many religious quotations is that one of the major problems for the majority of nations in the world at the beginning of the 21st Century is their interaction with Islam--Moslem countries and non-state Islamic Groups.  There are only a few violent conflicts of the last 30 years in which Moslems and Islam has not been one of the matters of contention and a driver of at least one of the protagonists.  But the overwhelming number of recent wars, the world over, have involved Moslems contesting with others: Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Protestants, Jews, Hindus, Bhudists--have had very few recent disputes with each other, but all have been in conflict with Moslems.  Most of these other groups had little knowledge or understanding of Islamic views of government, politics, society, conflict, ethics, science and modernity.  So we have included many quotations which reflect Islamic points of view.  We use the plural as Moslems are no more monolithic than Christians, Jews and members of other religions.  As with other areas of coverage, we try and reflect the range of different viewpoints, but as with other political quotations, the extreme views tend to get more coverage and have a larger chance of being included than middle of the road statements.

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In general, the answer is yes.  Thanks to the Eigen-Arnett Educational & Historical Foundation, we have a particularly broad and liberal use policy. 

 

You can use up to 100 quotations in any product, commercial or otherwise without any special permission or registration.  With a few exceptions even larger sets of material can be used.  Please read our entire policy: 

 

Click Here For Our Complete Copyright and Usage Policies

 

Graphic Permission is NOT so liberal.  Keep in mind that many of the graphics of the authors are not ours and we are using it with permission or as fair use.  Therefore we cannot give you permission to use the graphics in any way other than fair use if they are copyrighted.  Please see the policy above for details.

 

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They are somewhat subjective of course.  However,  Dr. Eigen has written an essay  that explains our editorial philosophy and selection criteria.  You can access it under:Support in the Main Menu and click on What Makes a Good Quotation 

 

Or if you wish to read it now, Click Here.

 

You should definitely read this document if you are going to suggest new additional quotations.  It is a good read if you are only interested in why certain quotations are favored.

 

This is one of the few documents that have ever been written on the subject of the criteria for judging political and historical quotations,

 

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The convention we have used is to only include these dates for deceased authors.  We use none for live authors.  However, often an author dies, and we have not yet included the vital dates.  If you observe such a case and know the dates, please go to the Contact Us on the Main Menu and provide the information on the Multi-Purpose Contact Us form provided.  We really need your help to keep up with the changing dynamic of the political and historical world.

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Yes, and we encourage you to do so.  We definitely want to expose the user--especially the students--to the panoply of professional opinion.

 

You can make a Comment upon any quotation.  The way this is done is to display the entire quotation by clicking on the quote in the list of found quotations after a search.  When the quotation is displayed, under the Brown area containing the concept terms, there is a line that says:

 

Click Here to View or Make Comments

 

Click on that.  A form will appear and then you can key in your comment.  When you submit it, your comment will--within a few hours--be available for all users.

 

Your comment need not necessarily disagree with editorial context.  It could be something about that quotation that you feel other users would profit from reading.  Your comment could be on the context or the authenticity of the quotation or anything else.

 

Note that you must be a registered user to add a comment to the collection and your name or handle, however you registered on the website, will be displayed with your comment.  Please include in your comment any special professional or academic qualifications you hold that might be useful to the reader.

 

In making comments, we require academic standards of intellectuality, comity and civility.  Please see our Norms, Rules & Regulations for the details.

 

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The audience for Eigen's Political & Historical Quotations ranges from professional historians and political scientists to politicians and school children.  Very often the user may not understand a particular unusual word or technical term or may not have the historical perspective to know about the event being described or the conditions that were then prevailing.

  

Clearly, these are our professional views and not necessarily the consensus of academic opinion.  Users can make comments to add to or contrert our views and explanations.  All comments are visible to other users.  However, you most sign up for an account in order to add comments.  There is no cost, but on Eigen's Political & Historical Quotations, our policy is that all content be identified as to authorship.

 

 

 

 

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Initially the editorial staff create and assign the concepts.  However, we have recently, responding to user request, added the capability for users to add additional concepts.  Therefore, the concepts that you see in the display of any quotation--the concept terms which will find the find the quote with a search--are a combination of the editorial staff assignments and additional assignments made by users such as yourself.

Functions Available on the Web Site
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Most other large quotation collections cover all subjects from love to literature. All the over 52,000 quotes in Eigen's collection are political and/or historical which makes it the largest collection in those categories.

Also, it is one of the few quotation collections on the web where almost every quotation has a source. This is given in a full citation with each quotation.  In addition, the collection can be searched by key words that are in the quotation and/or by concepts that might not he in the quotation. All 53,000+ quotes have been indexed by editors. Most quotations also display information and graphics of the author of the quotation.

An advanced search is provided so that for example, the user can search for quotations about John F. Kennedy but exclude quotations by Kennedy. Or quotes about war by Millard Fillmore. It can even find quotations about democracy or any other subject by American Presidents or Senators from Maine.

When quotations are displayed the conceptual index terms for that quotation are displayed, and clicking on any concept will automatically search the entire collection and display all the quotations for which that concept is relevant.

Many quotations are cross referenced by hyperlinking.  The quotation numbers of the cross referenced quotations appear on the quote display.  Clicking on the quotation number hyperlinks to the cross referenced quotation.

What is most unique about this website is that the Eigen-Arnett Educational & Cutural Foundation has one of the most generous permission rules for using the quotes in ANY form.  Up to 100 quotations may be used without contacting us for any permission.

There are a host of unique conveniences for the user that are too numerous to describe in toto,  One example is that each user who registers (there is no cost) has his/her own bookmark library.  Users can designate any quotation to be bookmarked, and that quotation will be entered into the user's personal hyperlinked set of quotations being worked on.

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Yes, there are 3 ways. Each produces a slightly different file of the quotation.

 

  1. You can use the browser printer or the hyperlink print command on the quote display page, but set up your printer in advance to print to a file. This method will produce different kinds of files depending on your choice. One is an Adobe pdf file and another would be a Post Script file.
  2. You can use the hyperlink : PDF. This will produce a PDF version of the basic unformatted printed data that the Print hyperlink would produce.
  3. You can use your browser command to Save As. This will allow you to produce an HTML version of the exact formatted look and feel of the page that you see on the screen for that quotation display. This produces an HTML file AND a folder with the same name that holds the graphics for the web page.

 

If you use the Microsoft Explorer Web Browser, you have another option for saving files of the formatted quotation display. This is a Microsoft mht file which can be read by any Web Browser or Word and contains the entire HTML page in a single file rather than the folder and multiple files that are produced if you save as HTML. For serious scholarship and the saving of many files, we recommend this format as it maintains the fidelity of the page and puts all the material--including graphics into a single file that you can store, organize, bookmark, and use.

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Yes, this is a new feature.  If you want to submit an additional quotation, have the quotation ready, along with the other material--the author(s), the source citation and the vital dates if the author is deceased.  Then you want to check whether or not the author is already represented in our collection.  The best way to find out is to list all the authors (under the View option of the main menu).  Then use the filter to key in the first 2 or 3 letters of the last  name.  (Authors are filed in the system, Last Name -- First Name -- Middle Name(s) or initials -- Suffixes (Jr, III, The Elder, etc,).  Then you can see whether or not the author is already in the collection.   If he/she is already, use the name in the exact form that it is already used.  Otherwise the computer will think that there is another new author.  If not decide on the form of the name of the new author.  To the degree practical, use middle names and or initials since many people share the same name.

 

The next thing you want to do is be sure that the quotation you are suggesting is not already in the collection.  The best way for you to check this, is to pick a phrase string (a few words in exact sequence--counting spaces) and search for that exact phrase using the Advanced Search.  Use the first line of the search and select Exact Match in the second column.  The third column should be Keyword Anywhere. Submit the search and you will see if the phrase is already in the collection.  If it already is in the system, examine the found quotes to see if the entire quote is the same as your suggestion.  Sometimes a similar or the same phrase might be used in different quotes.  If your suggested quotation is long, you might choose 2 or 3 different phrases and use 2 or 3 lines of the Advanced Search.  Choose OR as the connector between them so you will find quotes that use any of the phrases.  Perhaps there is a quotation already in the collection that has part of your quotation.  (If that is the case and you want to suggest that the existing quote be expanded, please use the Contact Us Multi-Form.)

 

If the quotation is not already in the system, please click Suggest New Quote on the Main Menu.  Then follow the guidelines and specific instructions of how to key in the different information.  We suggest that you do not try to key in a long quotation directly,  have it in your word processor, note pad, One Note or other tool.  Then use <Ctrl c> to copy the quotation and <Ctrl v> to paste it into the proper box on our website.

 

Note that there is also an area for you to key in an acknowledgment of your contribution that will appear whenever the quotation is displayed.  This is optional and at your discretion.

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Yes, this is also built into to our website.   Under the Brown area with the yellow concepts of the quotation display , there is a green hyperlink icon that says, Share This.  Click on that and you will see icons for the most popular social media sites.  Click on any one and follow the procedures.  There is a button View All and clicking on this displays icons for most of the many lesser known social media sites.

 

 

 

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The hard  way is to copy the quotation and paste it into an email to your colleague.  There is an easy way that is built into the website,  Under the Brown area with the yellow concepts of the quotation display , there is a hyperlink that says, E-Mail This Quote to a Friend.  Click on that and fill in the e-mail address and add a note if you wish, and the website server will send the e-mail for you.

 

 

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Yes, but we do not recommend that you use your web browser's bookmarking capability for this purpose, but you can do so if you wish.  Our reason is that if you are a serious user of Eigen's Political & Historical Quotations, you will likely have many (hundreds or even thousands of bookmarked) quotations and searches saved for your work.  The process can overwhelm the browser bookmarking system.

 

As an alternative, we have built in a bookmarking system for each user of Eigen's Political & Historical Quotations.  When any quotation is displayed, below the brown area containing the concept terms, in the second line, there is a hyperlink:  Bookmark this Quote. 


If you click on this hyperlink, the quotation is automatically added to your personal bookmarks on the website--not on your browser.  The
hyperlink message changes and you can then un-bookmark the quotation thereafter when and if you want.

 

To access your bookmarked quotes and other materials, under My Account in the main menu, select Bookmarks.  Then all your bookmarks will be listed, and you can access any of them. 

 

Of course, in order to use the Bookmarking capability, you must have a registered  account.  There is no cost to register.  If you have not already done so,  you can read about the advantages and privacy safeguards in Why Create a Personal account.  To register an account now Click Here.

 

 

 

 

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Easily, what you may not have noticed is that whenever you display a full quotation, a new window is created on your browser.  The display appears in the new window.  In your browser, you can, using the browser Back Arrow Button, go to the previous page--the one listing all the found quotations, and click on another quotation and that will open still another window with the new quotation displayed.  Every display of a quotation opens a new window.  Then you can select among the different quotes (from that search or another search) and view them all.

 

After you open the two quotation windows, you can compare them by clicking back and forth between the tabs on your browser.  Another way is to reduce the size of the two windows so that you can view both at the same time.  If you are using Wndows 7 or later, there is a procedure for automatically splitting the screen called "aero shake".  Click here to learn the technique if you are not familiar with it.

 

However, there is no free lunch.  Each full quote display opens its own window, but that window will not close unless  you   close it.  So manage your browser windows.   For those of you who have Windows 7 or later, there is a window "shaking": procedure which will automatically display the two  side by side--each on half the screen.  You can keep quotes in their open windows as long as you wish, but at some point you have to close the windows.  If you want to keep particular quotation displays for later use, Bookmark them.  You have your own bookmark section of this web site where you may keep any and all content that you wish.

 

 

 

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There are two ways.

 

If you want to print the quote for academic purposes and just want the text without any layout, there is a hyperlink below the brown area with the yellow concepts: Print Quotation .  Clicking on this hyperlink will print the text of the quotations and components in a basic unformatted layout. 

If you want the layout, the picture etc., then use your Browser's Print Command, and you will get an exact copy of what you see on the screen for the quote display.

 

You can also as usual select the quotation, copy it, and paste it into an application to use a copy.  If you want to copy the HTML code, it is open for you to do so.  Just display the Source Code on your Internet browser, select the portion that you want to copy and copy and paste in the usual manner.



  


 

 

 

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In the main menu under View there is a selection for Authors.  Click on that selection and in a few moments the names of all the authors currently quoted will be displayed.  There are almost 10,000 different authors so the web page is very long.  It is in columns and alphabetically sorted. (Remember that numerals and symbols proceed "A" in the Windows sorting scheme.)  Depending on the speed of your Internet connection and the speed of your computer, the large set may take 10 seconds or so to load.  So be a little patient and do not re-click the Applybutton.

At the top of the page there is a filter by which you can select a subset of the terms.  For example,  if you key in "k", the list will redisplay only the author names beginning with "k".  If you key in "Kennedy" you will find that all the authors with last names of "Kennedy" will display.

Searching for Quotes
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Advanced Search

The Advanced Seach is even more powerful. To activate it, you must Click on Advanced Search. Then 5 search combination input boxes display. You may use only 1, several, or all 5 for a particular search. The Advanced Search will give also give you the capability of doing a Boolean Logic search. But you do NOT have to key in the logical operators. You just select them with the radio buttons. The choices for each are AND, OR, and NOT. The latter is really short for AND NOT. However that is not the most important power of the advanced search. The most useful power is the capablity of restricting the search for key words to different parts of the quotation. The separate parts of the quotation are: Quotation Text, Quotation Number, Concepts, Areas, Authors, Citation, Related Quotes. You may search for key words within these components separatly or leave the default at the end of the line and the search will be for Any Keyword. (This searches all components.)

For example, if you keyed the terms John Kennedy in the simple search, you would get quotes that were about Kennedy, by Kennedy or quotes that even mentioned Kennedy. But if you just wanted quotatations by John Kennedy, you could use the Advanced Search.

Key John Kennedy in the first of the 5 search boxes, The default second column requires that all the words (in this case 2) be required. The last column allows you to select only one part of the quotation to search within. Select Author Only. Then submit the search. That will restrict the search results to only those quotes where John Kennedy was an or the only author.

You have 5 lines of possible search combinations. Between each, you have the option of the kind of logical connection between the lines. The default is AND. However, you may also connect any two lines with OR or NOT. Logically NOT means AND NOT.

In the 2nd of the three text boxes on each line, one of the options is Exact Match. This is what you woul use if you wanted to search for a specific phrase.

The NOT connector is very powerful. For example, you might want to seach for quotes regarding navies, but you do not want to include the First or Second World Wars or the Korean War. So in the first line you may use navy and navies. The default will require both terms, and either will do.  So set the box to Any of the terms.  Use Keyword Anywhere. THen below it use the connector NOT, In the second line, key in: First World War, Second World War, Korean War, Vietnam War. Change the 2nd box from the default to Any of the terms and set the third box to Concepts. The result will be all quotations about navies except those that are related to any of the wars that you listed.

If you find too many terms, you can always use the Advanced Search to delimit the results set of quotes.  Select the connector AND.  Then add another condition and you will have a finer search.

Note that when an advanced search is completed the search terms and parameters remain in the text boxes of the advanced search form.  This makes it easy to delimit of modify your searxh without rekeying.  However, if you want a comcplete new searh, click on the button: Clear Form For New Search.

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When you add an index term, the data base does not get reindexed immediately to reflect the new information. The changes and additions are batched, and periodically the reindexing is done. In no event will the change take more than 1 hour before it takes effect. Usually it is much less--a few minutes. If you hit the indexing cycle at an opportune time, the change could be made in seconds.

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All comuters slow down periodically to reorganze its memory and other functions. That is true about your PC and our Servers. So occasionally a search may be taking longer than expected. Here's how you can tell if a search is in process:

When you submit the search, the screen dims by overlaying a shade of grey. Then a rotating circle appears in the center of the page. While the search is progressing the circle keeps rotating. When the search is ended, the circle stops its motion, the screen goes back to the bright stage, and the results display. If you think you have sumitted the search and the screen does not dim, in a second or two, then you should click the Submit Search button again. If the screen does not dim and the rotating circle appear, try starting the search all over again. If it still does not work, please contact us.

Occasionally the circle continues its revolving motion for some time. This can happen if a packet gets lost on the Internet somewhere. If your search takes more than a minute, that is probably what happened. Close that window, open another and try again. This is rare but it has happened and we have not yet figured out a way to detect this problem and stop the process. But we are working on it.

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The time elapsed that is indicated on the search results is the time that our Server spends searching the data base and finding the results. This time is typically less than a second but for very complex searches may take 5 seconds or so. However several other things must happen after the Server search for you to view the results. These are:

  1. the results must travel over the Internet to your computer
  2. they must then be processed by your computer and by your browser
  3. then they must display through your coputer's graphic processer to your screen

The first of these steps depends on the traffic on the Internet activity at the time and the amount of Bandwidth that you have availalable. The more bandwidth you have available, the faster the results will transfer.

The second is determined by the physical characteristics of your computer. The speed of your processor(s) and the amount of RAM are the most important factors here.

The display time is a function of the speed and additional on board memory of your Graphics Card.

When all this is added together, the total elapsed time from when you submit the search till you view the first page of the results will by from 2 to 12 seconds for most searches. A very complex, advanced search, in an average computer with broadband Internet connectivity, might take as long as 18 seconds. Most will be between 2 and 5 seconds.

So you might ask, why we don't display the total elapsed time instead of just to processor time. We would like to report an elapsed time that includes all of the factors, but it would add a good bit of time for our server to analyze your personal computer and your Internet connection and calculate everything; this would be a waste of time and delay your search. So we report that which it is fast to report and does not slow the process down--the time on our server.

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All the quotations are assigned to an area.  Areas include large conceptual classifications of the main content of the quotation.  So for example, if you wanted to view the many quotations that have to do with Freedom as a main subject area, you could use the advanced search and search for all quotations that have freedom as an area.  However, not all the quotations that relate to the concept of freedom will be in the freedom area.  The reason is that there are many quotations that deal with multiple concepts. For example, a quotation might deal with citizenshipduty, and freedom.  If in the editor's judgment, freedom is the main concept, it will be classified under the Freedom area.

 

However, if Citizenship were the main concept, the quote would appear in theCitizenship area and NOT in the Freedom Area.  So if you want ALL quotations dealing with a particular concept, then do NOT search within the Area Freedom.  Search for theConcept Freedom.  This will be a much larger set.  Area is more useful in a classical book where quotations would have to be in one chapter or another.  In general, Area is not that useful tool.  Concepts are much more powerful and comprehensive.

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Yes you can!

  

There is an entire area: Compliments & Insults.  You can use the Advanced Search to find all the Compliments and Insults in the colletion or just the Compliments and Insults for a particular person.   On the first line of the advanced search, type in Compliments & Insults the first seach box.  Then go to the Keyword Anywhere and change it to Area Only.  If you then submit this search, the result will be ALL the compliments and insults in the collection.  However, if you just wanted to obtain the insults about Richard Nixon, for example, go to the next search line leaving the AND condition between the two.  Now type in Nixon, Richard or Richard Nixon.  Then go to the Keyword Anywhere  and change it to Concepts Only.   Now when you submit your search, the results will include only the compliments and insults about Nixon.

 

 

You could refine the search even more.  Say you just wanted the compliments and insults about Nixon made by John Kennedy, you could add a third line to your advanced search.  Fir this line you use the AND connector and key in John Kennedy and change the Keyword Anywhere to Author Only.  Submit, and only quotes by Kennedy will be included in the found searches. 

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Each quotation has a set of descriptive concept terms that may or may not be words in the quotation itself.  When a quotation is displayed, all of its concept terms are displayed below the quotation in the Brown area in Yellow type.  You can use these in the following ways:

·       You can search for all quotations in the collection that have that particular concept by clicking on the  Yellow concept term.

·       You can always search for quotations that have a specific concept term by navigating to the Search tab.  Or, if you wish for finer granularity, you can use the Advanced Search to find any Boolean Combination of several concept terms.  You must select the Concept field and then key in the name or names you seek. For example, you may want to search for all quotations that have freedom or liberty as concepts but not quotes that refer to constitutions.  The logical operators you may use are AND, OR and NOT.

There are about 20,000 different Concept Terms.  There may be many Concept Terms for a given quotation.  Some will have over 20; others, just one or two.  These Concept Terms can be anything--ideas, places and may eveninclude people's names.  This latter is when a quotation is about one or more individuals.  The individual name becomes a concept term.  Concept terms of names are of the form:

Last Name, First Name, Middle Names or Initials. 

·       You can therefore search for quotes about specific people using the Advanced Search.  If you use the regular Search and type in a name, you will find both quotes by that person and quotes about that person.  If you want quotes by the person, select Author in the advanced search field.  If you want quotes about the person, select Concept Terms in the advanced search.

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In the Main Menu, under View, there is a selection for Concept Terms.  Click on that selection, and in a few moments all the concept terms currently in use will be displayed.  There are over 20,000 different terms so the web page is very long. It is in 4 columns and alphabetically sorted. (Remember that numerals and symbols proceed "A" in the Windows sorting scheme.)  Depending on the speed of your Internet connection and the speed of your computer, the large set may take 10 seconds or so to load.  So be a little patient and do not re-click the Apply button.

 

 At the top of the page there is a Filter by which you can select a subset of the terms.  For example, The filter allows you to view a subset of the concept tags which begin with the characters that you type into the filter box.  For example, keying in the filter box "ju" will display "justice" and all the other concept names beginning with "ju".  This way, you do not have to scroll throught the large file.  if you are looking for "freedom", just key "free" in the filter box and you will be at the right part of the file.

 

 

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In Hispanic cultures, it is very common for people to retain both their maternal and paternal family names.  Typically of the three names, the second one is the maternal family name and the third name is the parternal family name.  However, many Hispanics use as a family name the combination of the Maternal family name followed by the Paternal family name.  So that Enrico Lopez Morales would be stored as Lopez Morales, Enrico

Unfortunately, with the internationalization and globalization, not all Hispanics stay with the traditional form. They might adopt the North American and European form and Enrico Lopez Morales would be used and stored as Morales, Enrico Lopez.

So when you are searching for a Hispanic name, use the advanced search, key in all three names and be sure that the search will not be Exact. It should be All the terms. That will find the name regardless of which order is used.

From an editorial point of view, we have not been consistent because we try, with names, to use the convention that the person chooses to use if it is known to us. So you will see Hispanic names in the different forms within this collection.

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Either or both.  The normal mode is to search for any instance of the search string word that you enter

The search string of hold will normall find hold, holder, holding, holdings, behold real estate holdings, and know when to hold.

The Basic Search is always in that mode.

The Advanced Search can operate in that mode or, if you want, it can search for Whole Word(s) Only, by checking the box under the right hand side of each of the 5 search lines.

When this is checked, hold will only find hold and not any of the other variants.

Note that the Search for Search Whole Word(s) Only is selectable for EACH of the search lines independently. So you could, for example, turn it on for the a Citation field search and keep it off for the search of the Quotation Text field.

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The Advanced Search handles some synonyms automatically, but only when searching in the Concept tag field. 

Example: Search the concept tag field for spying.  You will not ony find those quotations which are tagged spying, you will also find quotations that are tagged intelligence or tagged espionage

However, if you search any of the other fields for spying, you will not find quotes which do not contain the word spying but do include the synonyms espionage or intelligence.  The Synonym Finder only works with the concept field.  It does not function with Quotation Test, Citation, or any other field.

Even with searches of the Concept Field, the Synonym Finder will not always work.  The reason is that in order for the synonyms to be found, our editors must have included that particular synonym set.  They only do this for those synonyms which past users have searched for frequently.  Or, they enter a synonym set when our users reuquest it.  If you have a synonym set you would like to recomend, please do so by clicking Contact Us

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Yes, there is a choice of 4 different sort orders to the right of the Search Form.  Here are the options:   Most Popular:  All the quotations that meet the search criteria are sorted in order of popularity.  So the quotes at the top of the list are those that meet the search criteria and have been found and displayed frequently by other users.  Most of the famous quotations will be near the top of the list.  Least Popular:  This is the reverse popularity.  The quotes near the top of the list will be the ones that meet the search criteria but are quotes that are relatively unknown to most people.  This sort order is best for doing general historical research or looking for a new slant on an issue.  This will show first some of the more interesting and lesser known quotations.  The popular quotes will still be found but they will be toward the bottom of the list.   By Author:  Here the quotations are grouped alphabetically by the Author’s last name.  This is best for finding quotes from specific figures on given topics as you will see all the quotes by each author separately.   Random:  This order has no bias of any kind.  Popularity is irrelevant so this is useful if you do not want your selection to be influenced by what others do or do not do.  

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Yes, for the most part.

 

Quotations from non-United States countries all have the country of origin as a Conceptual Index Term.  Therefore, by using the advanced search and searching for the country in the Concepts, you can to a great extent find all the quotations from citizens of that country.

 

There is one problem however.  If you search for all the quotations which have "France" as a concept term, you will find the quotations made be Frenchmen.  However, you will also find quotations made by others ABOUT France.  You will then have to visually check the quotations to tell the difference.

 

As a practical matter, you will not look for ALL quotations for a particular country very often.  Typically, you would be searching for some concepts within quotes from a specific country.  So if you wanted English quotations about Protectionism, you would use the Advanced Search and enter both "England" and "Protectionism" as concept terms to search for.  Of course you would want to search for "All" the quotations and not "Any".  The latter will give thousands of results--all the quotes about England, by Englishmen and all the quotes dealing with Protectionism.

 

There is one exception to the editorial policy of including the country of the author as a concept.  That is for the United  States.  The greater part of the entire quotation collection is American authors.  So we do not have any way to specifically search for only American quotations.  There is a practical way to do that however.  First, in the Advanced Search, enter the search terms and lines without regard to country.  Then go to a new search line and use the connector NOT.  In the new search line, enter:

England, France, Italy, Germany, Canada, Israel, Ireland

Then, in that line, set the search mode to "Any of the Terms."  Submit your search and the results will exclude any quotations from any of the countries.  80 percent of the non-American quotes will be eliminated.

 

Warning:  The above method will also block American quotations ABOUT any of the countries that might otherwise meet your search criteria, so if this is a problem, do not use this method.  Ideally we would have had a separate field for country of origin of the author, but at the time the system was originally designed, storage, computing power and data base technology as not sufficiently advanced.  So we apologize for your having to use this workaround.

 

One editorial issue users should be familiar with is how we determine the country for a quotee.  We do NOT use the country of birth.  In general we use the nation in which the author did either most of his work or his most important work.  However, where authors emigrate to another nation and finish their career there, we use that nation.

 

For example, Albert Einstein was born in Germany.  But he did his most important work in Switzerland.  However, after returning to Germany, he emigrated when the Nazis took over Germany, and became an U. S. Citizen and did the rest of his work in America.  He is counted as an American.  Alexander Hamilton, was born in the Caribbean and he too emigrated to the then American Colonies and attended Columbia University.  He remained in America till his death, and most of his great contributions were made in and for America.  He too is counted as an American.

 

There are a few exceptions.  Karl Marx, for example,  was a German.  However, he sought moved to London where he was an émigré.  He died in London and never pretended to be anything but an expatriate German.  He did his most important work in England, but we still list him as German.

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This happens more often than any of us would like.  The reason is the variety of how names are used in our society.  One simple example is Dwight D. Eisenower, Dwight David Eisenhower, and Dwight Eisenhower.  There are all common expressions for the name of the same man.  The middle names or lack thereof cause a problem as our edit pick one form that we use for the person, and .you might be searching for another form.  With John McCain. the middle name problem exists, but there is another.  His father had the same name, so he us a Jr.  We use the Jr, but many people do not.  With foreign names there is often a difference in which is the first name and which is the last.  Even in some countries there is no standard and you may be searching for a different order than we used in the data base.  Then there are Popes who tyoically have two names. thieir birth names and the ones they choose later.  Pen names and titles of royalty also cause problems.

Fortunately there are a set of helpful hints we can give you to keep the problem to a minimum.  In general do not search for names the same way as you might for other terms.  Here are some suggestions.

  1. If you get no results and think that you should or want to be sure, check your spelling carefully.  The data base is being searched for what you type--not what you want!
  2. If you use the Basic Search for a name, and get no results, do NOT assume that is the end of the matter.  Try again with the advanced search.  Some of our veteran users almost never us the Basuc Search for a name.  We always use the Advanced Search for names.
  3. Regardless of whether of not you use the Adanced or Basic Search, use only one name.  For example, "Eisenhower" first.  Do NOT try the full name.  The downside of this strategy is that you will also find the quotations from David Eisenhower and the President's wife, Amy Eisenhower.  However this is not so bad as when your scan the list of found quotes, you can ignore the relatives or others wuth the same last name.  Do NOT use this technque with very common names like Kennedy, Evans, Johnson, or Smith.  In those cases us the last name also but NOT the middle name, middle initials or the surname, Jr, III, IV, etc.
  4. The previous hint is particularly import with first names that may have several variants.  Thomas-Tomas-Tom; Judy-Judith; Lewis-Louis-Lew-Lou; etc.
  5. When you use the advanced search for a name, set the "As" variable to "Author Only".  Be sure that the search is set for "All the Terms."  Key in the last name only or in the case of a common name, the first and the last.
  6. If an person is better known be a pen name or any alternative name, search for the alternative.  For example use "Voltaire" for Francois-Marie Arouet or "Twain" for Samuel Clemmons. (Note we try not to use the very common first name, "Mark".  This is especially important if you are using the Basic Search but is a good rule to follow always.)
  7. The most reliable way to find kings and popes is to use there assumed titular name. Eg.  Pius XIII, Richard III.
  8. If you use a single name, or even a double name and you get a large number of found quotes, then return to your advanced search.   Your original search will still be keyed in.  Just add a first or other name, and submit the search again.  This will delimit the number of found quotes to a more managagle size.
  9. If you know something about the person, you can search for that in a second field of the advanced search using the AND connector.  For example, if you are looking for America's first great scientist, and don't know whether to use "Ben Franklin" or "Benjamin Franklin", use "scientist" in the second field and allow "Key Word Only".
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Yes, definitely!

You can also search for an Exact Phrase.

You can use logical connectors in the Basic Search. For example, if you want to find quotes that might reference any one of several countries, you can use the country names separated by the connector OR. For example:

England OR Spain OR France

If you want to require that all countries be in the found quotes, then use the AND connector, as

England AND Spain AND France

 

You may also require the absense of a search term. For example, if you wanted to find Kennedy Searches but exclute John Kennedy, you could use

Kennedy AND -John

The minus sign functions as the negation symbol.

Using the Basic Search, you can combine logical connectors with parentheses. For example,

Democracy AND (Kenya OR Uganda OR Tansania)

will find quotes relating to Democracy in any of the three countries.

You may also search for an Exact Phrase or String. Just place the phrase within quotation marks.

"you learn on the job"

will find the famous quotation of California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Remember, when you use the quotation marks all the words most be in the quotation and they must be in the exact order.

Searches are NEVER case sensitive. John F. Kennedy and john f. kENNEDY are both treated the same in searching.

The Basic Search will find quotations with the search terms in any or all of the fields of a quotation. These include, the quotation text, the citation text, the author name, the concept terms, the area, and the quotation number. So if you want to find quotation number 55433, just search for that number.

If you want to conduct a search and delimit the search to specific fields, use the Advanced Search.

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On almost all browsers, there is a symbol on the Tab (at the top of the page) for each Window.  Nirmally, if the Tab shows a window of this collection, our small icon appears.  The Brown square with the 2 White Quitation Marks.  The Tab for the Current Window is highlighted.  When you send a command (click on something), On that Tab there is a dynamic symbol that replaces the icon.

Whenever you click and send a request to a server, the symbol activates and shows some kind of motion.  This motion continues until the new page appears on your screen.  As ling as the motion continues, the computers are still doing their thing.

If the symbol is static and not moving EITHER:

1. The request has already been recieved and the requested command has been completed, or

2. Your click was not recognized and the server is not even trying to fulfill your request.

If 2, click again so the command can be sent.

If the symbol keeps moving for more than a minute or two, there is a hangup somewhere.  (It could be your computer, our server, or the Internet somewhere.  If this occurs, close that window.  Open another, and try again. (You may have to enter the URL for http:\\politicalquotations.org again)

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Yes.

There are several options for changing default type in most Internet Browsers.  However, we recomend that instead you use the simple enlargement of the screen that is built into the browsers.  This site has been optimally designed for 2 sceen magnifcations.  The 100 percent which is the usual default and 150 percentThe latter, gives a much more readable screen size and for almost all computers and screen combinations, fits on the screen and required no horizontal scrolling.  Also anything in between will function well and not require horizontal scrolling. Many of our users set their browser for 150 percent whenever they use the site.  If your eyes are good, and your screen has a good resolution of course you can stay at 100 percent.

This applies to browsing with PCs, iPad's and most tablets but does NOT apply to Smart Phones where you will have to alter the magnification as with most sites.

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The purpose of the concept terms is to enable a user to find quotations related to a particular concept. This is a special case of “tagging”. Our editors have determined the first set of concepts. In effect, they have tried to put themselves in the place of a user and guess what concept terms a user might search for to find the particular quotation. So the editors are trying to predict what you and other users would expect. However, YOU and the other users are more accurate judges of your expectations than our staff is. So we have added a capability for users to add concept terms directly.

 

You should add a concept whenever you examine a quotation display and you believe that you would expect to find the quotation if another particular concept term was searched for and it is NOT in the listing of the concept terms that have already been entered by the editors and other users. Remember, the concept terms are displayed in the Brown area of the quotation display in Yellow type.


In each display of a quotation, there is a boxed area below the Brown area towards the bottom of the display. There is a text box in which you may enter a single new concept term or multiple terms. If multiple, you must separate the terms by a comma.


There is one case where there might be a complication. It is where there is a comma that is a critical part of a concept term. Take the example where you want to add new concepts, one of which is "Kennedy, John F." In addition you want to add "oratory" and "speechmaking". The concept term with the comma must ALWAYS be typed INSIDE PARENTHESES. In the example given the following must be typed inside the text box:


"Kennedy, John F.", oratory, speechmaking

or you could type

"Kennedy, John F." , "oratory" . "speechmaking"


So you can always surround each concept entered by quotation marks or you could use the quotation marks only for the concept terms that themselves contain one or more commas."


Note that you can add one or more concept terms. You cannot delete terms. If you really believe that the quotation has nothing whatsoever to do with an existing concpet term, please use the Contact Us form and let us know if you think we have made this error. If the editors agree, they will delete the concept term.

 

Remember, that whenever you have the name of a person as a concept term, the last name should be first. So Franklin Delano Roosevelt should be entered as a concept as "Roosevelt, Franklin Delano".